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If you would like to learn more about housing policies and programs, there are a lot of valuable resources available. This section shows you where to find resources on LocalHousingSolutions.org related to particular issues or programs and provides links to selected external materials and websites that can supplement the guidance available on LocalHousingSolutions.org.

Affirmatively furthering fair housing

Learn more about affirmatively furthering fair housing

General information:

2017 LIHTC policies promoting supportive housing and recommendations for 2018-2019 (May 2019) AFFH-T data documentation (March 2019) Opportunity mapping issue brief (September 2013) Breaking down barriers: Housing, neighborhoods, and schools of opportunity (April 2016) New starts: Leveraging the new transit policy guidance to create inclusive communities of opportunity (August 2013) Code of Federal regulations 24: Housing and urban development (April 2000) To increase housing choice, try incentivizing landlords (September 2016) Learn about the FHEO complaint and investigation process Fair Housing Assistance Program (FHAP) The case for fair housing: 2017 fair housing trends report HUD education and outreach initiative Fair Housing Initiatives Program Enterprise: Embracing Success in Merging Populations (March 2015) Enterprise: Closing the Divide (January 2019)State Fair Housing Protections (August 2017) LISC: Did States Maximize Their Opportunity Zone Selections? (May 2018)

Toolkits:

HUD’s AFFH assessment of fair housing tool and mapping tool

Specific Policies:

Inclusionary zoning (LHS Brief) Inclusionary zoning (LHS Related Resources)

Regional policies/case studies:

National League of Cities: Local Tools to Address Housing Affordability (2019)
Fort Wayne housing authority Housing Voucher Choice Program property owner participation manual (Indiana) (December 2016) The Evansville housing authority Housing Choice Voucher Program (Indiana) (December 2015)
Watered-down ‘good cause’ eviction bill now Philly law (January 2019)
Puertas Cerradas: Housing barriers for Hispanics (July 2013)

Data sources:

FFIEC geocoding/mapping system HUD’s geospatial tool: Open data Latino kids’ data explorer AFFH assessment tools, resources, and training material (January 2017) National Fair Housing Alliance: Get local help (April 2019) Fair housing: Outreach tools Twitter: #FairHousing Inclusionary housing database map (2016) Law as Data: Using Policy Surveillance to Advance Housing Studies (2019)

Affordable homeownership

Learn more about affordable homeownership

General information:

Inclusionary housing in the United States (September 2017) Employer-assisted housing initiative guide for state & local realtor associations (2012) The state of the nation’s housing 2019 Understanding today’s manufactured housing (October 2017) NCSHA mortgage credit certificate program Q&A (February 2018) National Association of Local Housing Finance Agencies Making home affordable Single family housing repair loans & grants

Toolkits:

Increasing the availability of affordable homes: A handbook of high-impact state and local solutions (2016)
Housing Boulder: A toolkit of housing options (July 2015)
FDIC affordable mortgage lending guide IRS mortgage interest credit (2018)
Preserving multifamily workforce and affordable housing: New approaches for investing in a vital national asset (2015)

Specific Policies:

Community land trusts (LHS Brief)
Community land trusts (LHS Related Resources)

Limited equity cooperatives (LHS Brief)
Limited equity cooperatives (LHS Related Resources)
Property tax relief (LHS Brief)
Property tax relief (LHS Related Resources)

Regional policies/case studies:

State and local means of addressing housing affordability (abt compendium for NAHB, 2008) Regional approaches to affordable housing (December 2002) Leveraging public land for affordable housing in Northern Virginia: A primer (September 2014) National Council of State Housing Agencies Property tax relief: Why Virginia should adopt a state-funded income-targeted approach (December 2008) Property tax exemptions to promote affordable rental and homeownership housing in Seattle (April 2005) Case Studies in Affordable Housing Development in California Washington, D.C.: Land Surplus and Disposition Agreements Seattle, Washington: Building More Affordable Housing Using Surplus Public Land

Data sources:

NAHB housing opportunity index Policy map: Housing HUD’s geospatial tool: Open data Real estate transfer charges

Affordable rental housing

Learn more about affordable rental housing

General information:

The cost of affordable housing: Does it pencil out? How did they do it? Discovering new opportunities for affordable housing Inclusionary housing in the United States (September 2017) Low-Income Housing Tax Credits and Private Activity Bonds: A guide to affordable housing development (February 2019) How to unleash underutilized Private Activity Bonds to build more affordable rental housing (September 2016) Preserving affordable rental housing: A snapshot of growing need, current threats, and innovative solutions (Summer 2013) The space between: Realities and possibilities in preserving unsubsidized affordable rental housing (June 2013) A brief review of state and local preservation purchase laws (November 2006) Regional approaches to affordable housing(February 2003) State and city funded rental housing programs (2001, 2008) Is rent control good policy? (January 2013) Preserving Affordable Housing by Buying, Not Building (February 2019)

Toolkits:

Preserving multifamily workforce and affordable housing: New approaches for investing in a vital national asset (2015) Producing affordable housing in rising markets: What works? (November 2017) Affordable housing framework
Bending the cost curve: Solutions to expand the supply of affordable rentals (January 2014) APA Housing Policy Guide (June 2019)

Specific Policies:

Accessory dwelling unit (LHS Brief)
Accessory dwelling unit (LHS Related Resources)
Rental assistance demonstration (RAD) (LHS Brief)
Rental assistance demonstration (RAD) (LHS Related Resources)

Regional policies/case studies:

National League of Cities: Local Tools to Address Housing Affordability (Marcy 2013)

State and local means of addressing housing affordability (abt compendium for NAHB, 2008) Jody apartments, Denver Preserving Austin’s multifamily rental housing (April 2007) San Francisco housing data hub Where will people live? New Orleans’ growing rental housing challenge (June 2016) Property tax exemptions to promote affordable rental and homeownership housing in Seattle SMART housing: A strategy for producing affordable housing at the local level (Austin, Texas) SMART housing policy: Resource guide (Austin, Texas) (April 2005) Leveraging public land for affordable housing in Northern Virginia: A primer (September 2014) 21st century SROs: Can small housing units help meet the need for affordable housing in New York City? (January 2018) Housing Boulder: A toolkit of housing options (July 2015) Profile of rent-stabilized units and tenants in New York City (June 2014) Washington, D.C.: Land Surplus and Disposition Agreements Seattle, Washington: Building More Affordable Housing Using Surplus Public Land

Data sources:

Florida housing data clearinghouse HUD’s geospatial tool: Open data Policy map: Housing Map: Rent control laws by state (September 2019) NLIHC’s out of reach 2019

Building coalitions

Carbon emissions

Community development

Learn more about community development

General information:

Building sustainable, inclusive communities: How America can pursue smart growth and reunite our metropolitan communities (May 2010) Building American cities toolkit Property topics and concepts New starts: Leveraging the new transit policy guidance to create inclusive communities of opportunity (August 2013) Right-sizing urban growth boundaries (February 2013) Urban growth boundary Metro: Urban growth report (2014) (October 2015) Community development block grant program Community Land Trusts & Community Development: Partners Against Displacement (February 2019) Equitable Development Principles & Scorecard: A Tool for Communities and Planners (January 2016)

Toolkits:

Building Blocks: Connecting People, Places and Policies (podcast) National Association of Counties: Promoting Affordability Through Community Engagement (September 2018) Community Development Block Grants: A guide for counties (June 2018)

Specific Policies:

Housing rehabilitation codes (LHS Brief)
Housing rehabilitation codes (LHS Related Resources)
Higher density development (LHS Brief)
Higher density development (LHS Related Resources)
Land banks (LHS Brief)
Land banks (LHS Related Resources)
Tax increment financing (LHS Brief)
Tax increment financing (LHS Related Resources)
Transfer of development rights (LHS Brief)
Transfer of development rights (LHS Related Resources)
Employer-assisted housing programs (LHS Brief)
Employer-assisted housing programs (LHS Related Resources)
Community land trusts (LHS Brief)
Community land trusts (LHS Related Resources)

Regional policies/case studies:

Impact fees, City of Vancouver Supporting and sustaining interjurisdictional collaboration for housing and community development (Cook County, Illinois) (December 2012) Housing collaboratives (Cook County, Illinois) Downtown land disposition strategy (Raleigh, North Carolina) (July 2017) Coburg urbanization study update (Oregon) (April 2010) Housing policy debates (various states) (1997)

Data sources:

HUD’s community assessment reporting tool Data: Baltimore neighborhoods indicators alliance Community land trust program National map of land banks & land banking programs

Concentrated poverty

Development feasibility

Learn more about development feasibility

General information:

Economics of inclusionary development (2016)
Development process efficiency: Cutting through the red tape (November 2015)
Market effects of office development linkage fees (November 2007) Public benefit from publicly owned parcels: Effective practices in affordable housing development (June 2017) How are building codes adopted? (September 2016) Predictable permitting

Toolkit:

Building American cities toolkit Land development checklist Terner Center’s housing development dashboard (May 2016) Affordable housing zoning bonus administrative regulations and procedures (2013) Affordable housing framework Smart codes, smart process checklist

Tax & fees:

Impact fees and housing affordability (2005) Low-Income Housing Tax Credits and Private Activity Bonds: A guide to affordable housing development (February 2019) Using state tax credits: Q&A with Beth Mullen of the Reznick Group (September 2007) Enterprise: Giving Due Credit, Balancing Priorities in State Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Allocation Policies (2016)

Regional policies/case studies:

Impact fees, City of Vancouver Los Angeles affordable housing linkage fees nexus study (September 2016) A resolution to the Council of the City of Fresno, California, to provide fee waivers, credits, or reductions for affordable housing development (2007) City of Berkeley procedures for implementation of state density bonus law (September 2014) SMART housing: A strategy for producing affordable housing at the local level (Austin, Texas) (April 2005) Minnesota State building code: Code adoption guide (January 2016) Enterprise: Permanent Supportive Housing (2011)

Data sources:

CoreData.nyc Building codes Code adoption map (November 2018)

Displacement

Educational outcomes for children

Energy use

Equitable resources for residents of low-income neighborhoods and communities of color

Learn more about equitable resources for residents of low-income neighborhoods and communities of color

General information:

Supporting educational achievement with afterschool programs located in affordable housing (December 2016) The local rent supplement program, DC Fiscal Policy Institute (April 2016) HOTMA expands opportunities for low-income families State and city funded rental housing programs (2001, 2008) NYC department of homeless services: Rent issues National coalition for a civil right to counsel (NCCRC) Right to counsel New York City coalition (RTCNYC) Weatherization assistance programWeatherization works: Summary of findings from the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy’s weatherization assistance program (September 2014) Finding Common Ground: Coordinating Housing and Education Policy to Promote Integration (2012)SW Corridor Equitable Housing Strategy (March 2018)

Toolkits:

Equitable Development Principles & Scorecard: A Tool for Communities and Planners (January 2016)

Specific Policies:

National League of Cities: Local Tools to Address Housing Affordability (2019)
Housing choice vouchers (LHS Brief)
Housing choice vouchers (LHS Related Resources)

Mobility counseling (LHS Brief)
Mobility counseling (LHS Related Resources)

Mortgage & loans:

FDIC affordable mortgage lending guide IRS mortgage interest credit (2018) NCSHA mortgage credit certificate program Q&A (February 2018) Single family housing repair loans & grants
Property tax relief (LHS Brief)
Property tax relief (LHS Related Resources)
Tenant-based rental assistance (LHS Brief)
Tenant-based rental assistance (LHS Related Resources)

Regional policies/case studies:

The Ingredients of Equitable Development Planning, Joint Center for Housing Studies at Harvard University (2019) Rental subsidy program: Program guide, Chicago low-income housing trust fund (September 2016) San Francisco housing data hub Finally Home guideline: Housing trust Silicon Valley (September 2017) City of Virginia Beach: Rental security deposit program (July 2010) Rent setting for Section 8 Housing Choice Vouchers, and other rental assistance programs in Oregon: A user guide (July 2015) Housing mobility: What do housing voucher recipients want? (Connecticut) (April 2013) Fort Wayne housing authority Housing Voucher Choice Program property owner participation manual (Indiana) (December 2016) The Evansville housing authority Housing Choice Voucher Program (Indiana) (December 2015) HomeStart (Boston)

Funding for affordable housing

Learn more about funding for affordable housing

General information:

Land bank information headquarters
Environmental review: A guide for applicants seeking HUD or USDA rural development financial assistance Orientation to environmental reviews HOME investment partnerships program An overview of the HOME investment partnerships program (September 2014)
Funds for Kickstarting Affordable Housing Preservation and Production (March 2019)

Toolkit:

Financing mechanisms for affordable housing (2007) ChangeLab Solutions: Funding & Financing Strategies for Health & Housing (November 2018) Making sense of the district’s tax abatement dollars: Nine questions to consider (December 2015)

Specific Policies:

National League of Cities: Local Tools to Address Housing Affordability (2019)
Housing trust fund (LHS Brief)
Housing trust fund (LHS Related Resources)

Land value tax (LHS Brief)
Land value tax (LHS Related Resources)
Linkage fees/affordable housing impact fees (LHS Brief)
Linkage fees/affordable housing impact fees (LHS Related Resources)
Reductions in impact fees and exactions (LHS Brief)
Reductions in impact fees and exactions (LHS Related Resources)

LIHTC:

Low-Income Housing Tax Credits and Private Activity Bonds: A guide to affordable housing development (February 2019) Low-Income Housing Tax Credits: Affordable housing investment opportunities for banks (March 2014) Low-Income Housing Tax Credit, HUD office of policy development & research (May 2019) Creating balance in the locations of LIHTC developments: The role of Qualified Allocation Plans (February 2013) State LIHTC program descriptions Giving due credit: Balancing priorities in state Low-Income Housing Tax Credit allocation policies (June 2016) Financing supportive housing with tax-exempt bonds and 4 percent Low-Income Housing Tax Credits (Juanuary 2012) Using state tax credits: Q&A with Beth Mullen of the Reznick Group (September 2007) Neighborworks America: Engineered Utility Allowances (June 2016) Building Homes: County Funding for Affordable Housing

Regional policies/case studies:

State and local means of addressing housing affordability (abt compendium for NAHB, 2008) General obligation bond for affordable housing: Economic impact report (San Francisco, July 2015) Conversion fee, code of the District of Columbia Establishing a local housing trust fund: A guide for California officials (February 2007) A resolution to the Council of the City of Fresno, California, to provide fee waivers, credits, or reductions for affordable housing development (2007) From urban renewal and displacement to economic inclusion: San Francisco affordable housing policy 1978-2012 (November 2012) Los Angeles affordable housing linkage fees nexus study (September 2016) The economic impact of general obligation bonds for affordable housing in Austin (May 2012) San Francisco housing data hub New Mexico affordable housing tax credit NYC acquisition fund: Vacant property loan term sheet (January 2017) NYC acquisition fund: Occupied property and moderate rehab (preservation) loan term sheet (January 2017) Golden State acquisition fund Albuquerque, New Mexico adopts proportional impact fees (May 2007) USGBC case study profiles successful Cincinnati residential tax abatement (May 2018) Transforming a city one home at a time: Cincinnati’s successful residential tax abatement program (May 2018) Economic impact analysis of proposed 10 year tax abatement adjustments (2018) (Philadelphia)

Data sources:

HUD’s geospatial tool: Open data Policy map: Housing

Gentrification

Health and housing

Homelessness

Homeownership

Learn more about homeownership

General information:

NAHB housing opportunity index (2019) Employer-assisted housing initiative guide for state & local realtor associations (2012) The state of the nation’s housing 2019 (2019) HUD: Housing counseling (2019) Framework: Smart homeownership starts here National industry standards for homeownership education and counseling HOME investment partnerships program Mortgage revenue bonds and mortgage credit (March 2006) Significant features of the property tax 50-state property tax comparison study: For taxes paid in 2018 (June 2019) NeighborWorks America HUD: About title I property improvement loans A closer look at the building operator training program

Toolkits:

Housing Boulder: A toolkit of housing options (July 2015) Employer-assisted housing initiative guide for state & local realtor associations

Shared equity homeownership:

Shared equity models offer sustainable homeownership (Fall 2012) Shared equity homeownership: The changing landscape of resale-restricted, owner-occupied homeownership (2006) Grounded solutions network Connecticut opportunity map Filling the void between homeownership and rental housing: A case for expanding the use of shared equity homeownership (August 2013)

Regional policies/case studies:

San Francisco housing data hub Downpayment Assistance Loan Program (DALP), San Francisco (October 2019) Property tax exemptions to promote affordable rental and homeownership housing in Seattle Home – Down payment loan (St. Louis County, Missouri) HUD: Home/State information

Data sources:

Policy map: Housing HUD’s geospatial tool: Open data FFIEC geocoding/mapping system Access and affordability: Interactive map and research on 3 barriers to homeownership (September 2018)

Housing cost burden

Housing discrimination

Housing quality and safety

Housing supply

Learn more about housing supply

General information:

Land bank information headquarters (July 2019) A national profile of naturally occurring affordable housing (August 2016) Terner Center’s housing development dashboard (May 2016) Model affordable housing density bonus ordinance (March 2006) Affordable housing zoning bonus administrative regulations and procedures (December 2013) Unlocking the right to build: Designing a more flexible system for transferring development rights (March 2014) How to unleash underutilized Private Activity Bonds to build more affordable rental housing (September 2016) The state of the nation’s housing 2019 Property topics and concepts (2007) Producing affordable housing in rising markets: What works? (2017) State survey of housing appeals statutes (2016) Understanding today’s manufactured housing (2016) Bending the cost curve: Solutions to expand the supply of affordable rentals (January 2014) How land-use regulation undermines affordable housing (2015) Henry George’s land value tax: An idea whose time has come? HOME investment partnerships program (2019) An overview of the HOME investment partnerships program (September 2014)

Specific Policies:

Inclusionary zoning (LHS Brief)
Inclusionary zoning (LHS Related Resources)
Zoning changes to facilitate the use of lower-cost housing (LHS Brief)
Zoning changes to facilitate the use of lower-cost housing (LHS Related Resources)

Regional policies/case studies:

State and local means of addressing housing affordability (abt compendium for NAHB, 2008) SMART housing: A strategy for producing affordable housing at the local level (Austin, Texas) (April 2005) San Francisco housing data hub Property tax exemptions to promote affordable rental and homeownership housing in Seattle 21st century SROs: Can small housing units help meet the need for affordable housing in New York City? (January 2018)

Data sources:

Florida housing data clearinghouse HUD’s geospatial tool: Open data Policy map: Housing

Implementation

Local housing plans

Mixed-use development

Older adults—housing and services for

Persons with disabilities—housing and services for

Preservation of dedicated affordable housing

Learn more about preservation of dedicated affordable housing

General information:

Producing affordable housing in rising markets: What works? (2017) Linkage fee programs Unlocking the right to build: Designing a more flexible system for transferring development rights(March 2014) The HUD note sale: HUD and NYC HDC partner to preserve distressed properties The space between: Realities and possibilities in preserving unsubsidized affordable rental housing (June 2013) A brief review of state and local preservation purchase laws (November 2006) U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Rental Assistance Demonstration overview RAD program specifics Evaluation of HUD’s Rental Assistance Demonstration (September 2016) RAD photo essays HOME investment partnerships program ChangeLab Solutions: Preserving, Protecting & Expanding Affordable Housing

LIHTC:

The effects of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (May 2017) Giving due credit: Balancing priorities in state Low-Income Housing Tax Credit allocation policies (June 2016) Low-Income Housing Tax Credit, HUD office of policy development & research (May 2019)

Regional policies/case studies:

State and local means of addressing housing affordability (abt compendium for NAHB, January 2008) Jody apartments, Denver (2014) Conversion fee, code of the District of Columbia Evanston, Illinois – Code of ordinances: Chapter 18 – Affordable housing demolition tax and affordable housing fund (September 2019) Preserving Austin’s multifamily rental housing (April 2007) Golden State acquisition fund (California) DC’s first right purchase program helps to preserve affordable housing and is one of DC’s key anti-displacement tools (September 2013)

Data sources:

National Housing Preservation Database HUD’s geospatial tool: Open data Policy map: Housing Prezcat CoreData.nyc Florida housing data clearinghouse PrezCat catalog

Preservation of market affordable housing

Public transit—access to

Racial equity

Rental housing

Resilience to flooding and other climate-related threats

Resource-rich neighborhoods—affordable housing in

Learn more about affordable housing in resource-rich neighborhoods

General information:

Producing affordable housing in rising markets: What works? (2017) Creating balance in the locations of LIHTC developments: The role of Qualified Allocation Plans (February 2013) Effect of QAP incentives on the location of LIHTC properties (April 2015) HOTMA expands opportunities for low-income families Opportunity mapping issue brief Equitable transit oriented development: Examining the progress and continued challenges of developing affordable housing in opportunity and transit-rich neighborhoods (March 2015) State and local means of addressing housing affordability (abt compendium for NAHB, 2008) Model affordable housing density bonus ordinance (March 2006)

Specific Policies:

California Senate Bill 35 requires local entities to streamline the approval of certain housing projects (December 2018) Austin, Texas’s ‘Affordability Unlocked’ Development Bonus Program National League of Cities: Local Tools to Address Housing Affordability (March 2019)
Housing mobility (LHS Brief)
Housing mobility (LHS Related Resources)

Inclusionary zoning (LHS Brief)
Inclusionary zoning (LHS Related Resources)

Regional policies/case studies:


Regional approaches to affordable housing (February 2003) The Kirwan Institute: Opportunity communities Housing mobility: What do housing voucher recipients want? (Connecticut) (April 2013) The Anti-Displacement Policy Toolkit, Association for Neighborhood & Housing Development (NYC)

Data sources:

HUD’s geospatial tool: Open data Policy map: Housing Opportunity 360 Connecticut opportunity map Inclusionary housing database map

Tax increment financing

Taxation

Learn more about taxation issues

Specific Policies:

Land value tax (LHS Brief)
Land value tax (LHS Related Resources)

LIHTC:

Low-Income Housing Tax Credits and Private Activity Bonds: A guide to affordable housing development (February 2019) Low-Income Housing Tax Credits: Affordable housing investment opportunities for banks (March 2014) Low-Income Housing Tax Credit, HUD office of policy development & research (May 2019) Creating balance in the locations of LIHTC developments: The role of Qualified Allocation Plans (February 2013) State LIHTC program descriptions Giving due credit: Balancing priorities in state Low-Income Housing Tax Credit allocation policies (June 2016) Financing supportive housing with tax-exempt bonds and 4 percent Low-Income Housing Tax Credits (October 2007) Using state tax credits: Q&A with Beth Mullen of the Reznick Group (September 2007) Neighborworks America: Engineered Utility Allowances (June 2016) Building Homes: County Funding for Affordable Housing (May 2018)
Property tax relief (LHS Brief)
Property tax relief (LHS Related Resources)

Regional policies/case studies:

National League of Cities: Local Tools to Address Housing Affordability (Marhc 2019)
Evanston, Illinois – Code of ordinances: Chapter 18 – Affordable housing demolition tax and affordable housing fund (September 2019) USGBC case study profiles successful Cincinnati residential tax abatement (May 2018) Transforming a city one home at a time: Cincinnati’s successful residential tax abatement program (May 2018) Economic impact analysis of proposed 10 year tax abatement adjustments (2018) (Philadelphia)

Tenant protection and housing stability

Transportation

Zoning/Land Use Regulation

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